This Is How to Grow Your Muscles

Intro

If you’re hitting the gym with the goal of growing your muscles, you’re not alone.

Whether you’re a powerlifter aiming for maximum strength or a bodybuilder looking to sculpt that perfect physique, understanding the ins and outs of muscle hypertrophy is key.

So, let’s dive into the nitty-gritty of the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy as explained by Brad Schoenfeld in his book “The Mechanisms of Muscle Hypertrophy” and how you can apply this knowledge to grow your muscles.

The Start

When you first start pumping iron, don’t expect your muscles to blow up like balloons right away. In the initial stages, your body is busy making neural adaptations rather than packing on muscle mass. Patience is the name of the game during this period.

Around the two-month mark, though, things start to get interesting. Hypertrophy, or the growth of muscle cells, becomes the main player. Interestingly, your upper body tends to bulk up before your lower half. It’s like nature’s way of saying, “Let’s start from the top!”

Genetics

Now, here’s where things get a bit personal. Your genetic makeup, age, gender, and a bunch of other factors play a role in how your muscles respond to training. Some folks hit the muscle jackpot, while others need to work a bit harder for those gains.

The takeaway? Embrace your uniqueness and adjust your expectations accordingly.

The Progression

As you become a seasoned lifter, building muscle becomes more of a challenge. That’s why having the right workout plan is crucial. There’s no one-size-fits-all approach, but the principle of specificity tells us that some routines work better for muscle growth than others.

Go Heavy or Not?

So, here’s the big question: How should you train for maximum muscle gains? Bodybuilders swear by moderate loads and quick rests for that burn, while powerlifters go heavy with longer breaks between sets.

Both groups flaunt impressive muscles, but which method reigns supreme?

In this article, we’re on a mission. First, we’ll dig deep into the science behind muscle growth and resistance training. Then, armed with knowledge, we’ll craft a routine tailored specifically for hypertrophy. It’s time to turn research into real-life gains!

Get ready to unlock the secrets of muscle hypertrophy and embark on a journey to a more muscular you. It’s not just about lifting weights; it’s about lifting wisely. Let’s sculpt those muscles and make your time at the gym count!


➤ Types of Muscle Hypertrophy

When it comes to beefing up those muscles, it’s essential to distinguish between two distinct players on the growth stage:

  • muscle hypertrophy
  • and muscle hyperplasia

Let’s start with hypertrophy, the heavyweight champion in muscle enlargement.

During hypertrophy, the contractile elements of your muscles bulk up, and the extracellular matrix stretches to provide the necessary support. Picture it as your muscle fibers hitting the gym and getting ripped.

Now, in the other corner, we have hyperplasia, a different game altogether. This involves an increase in the number of fibers within a muscle. It’s like the muscle saying, “Hey, let’s invite some more friends to the party!”

Hypertrophy, our main focus here, can throw in a twist during its performance.

It can occur by adding sarcomeres in series or in parallel. Most of the muscle growth you’ll experience from your regular resistance training comes from adding sarcomeres and myofibrils in parallel.

It’s like building muscle bricks side by side, making your overall muscle cross-sectional area beefier.

When you hit your muscles with an overload during resistance training, it’s like sending a wake-up call.

The myofibers and the extracellular matrix go into action, triggering a series of events that boost the size and number of myofibrillar contractile proteins like actin and myosin.

This results in an increase in individual fiber diameter and, voila, your muscle cross-sectional area expands.

Now, if you’re into the nitty-gritty details, there’s also something called “sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.” This is like adding noncontractile elements and fluid to the muscle mix, creating more bulk without necessarily making you the next Hulk.

Bodybuilders, with their unique training styles, often show more of this kind of hypertrophy, marked by increased fibrous connective tissue and a higher glycogen content compared to their powerlifting counterparts.

But wait, there’s more!

Some researchers have thrown the possibility of muscle hyperplasia into the ring. This involves an increase in the actual number of muscle fibers.

While studies in animals have hinted at the existence of hyperplasia, the jury is still out on whether it happens in humans.

The intricate nature of muscle fibers makes counting them a challenge, and evidence supporting hyperplasia in humans is a bit like chasing a mythical creature – it might be out there, but we’re not quite sure.

In the world of muscle growth, it’s not just about lifting weights; it’s about understanding how your muscles respond to the challenge.

So, whether you’re building muscle bricks in parallel or inviting more friends to the party, remember: each lift is a step closer to a beefier, stronger you!

👉 Discover More: The Muscle and Strength Pyramid (Nutrition Summary)


Satellite Cells

Muscles are like the strong, silent guardians of our bodies—postmitotic tissues that don’t engage in significant cell replacement throughout our lives. But, like any superhero, they need a dynamic repair mechanism to avoid losing mass and keep flexing their strength.

Enter the dynamic duo: muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The real show, muscle hypertrophy, steals the spotlight when protein synthesis outshines protein breakdown.

Now, let’s talk about the unsung heroes behind muscle hypertrophy—satellite cells. These little powerhouses hang out between the basal lamina and sarcolemma, earning the title of “myogenic stem cells”.

Normally, they’re in a chill, quiescent state. But when your muscles face a significant mechanical challenge, these cells wake up from their nap and get to work. It’s like a cellular call to action.

Related:  The Muscle and Strength Pyramid (Training Summary)

Once activated, satellite cells pull off some impressive moves. They start proliferating and then join forces—either with existing cells or among themselves—to create brand-new myofibers.

This dynamic duo of proliferation and fusion provides the raw material needed for muscle tissue repair and growth.

But why are satellite cells so crucial for hypertrophy? Well, they’re like the muscle’s construction crew, donating extra nuclei to muscle fibers.

More nuclei mean a greater capacity to synthesize new contractile proteins. Picture it as giving your muscles a boost in protein production power.

Here’s where the concept of myonuclear domain comes into play. It suggests that each myonucleus regulates mRNA production for a specific sarcoplasmic volume. So, for muscles to grow, they need more myonuclei.

Satellite cells, with their mitotic capability, step in as the heroes supporting muscle growth by providing these essential myonuclei. It’s like giving your muscles the workforce they need to expand and strengthen.

But wait, there’s more to the satellite cell story. These little heroes also come armed with an arsenal of myogenic regulatory factors, including Myf5, MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4.

These factors are like the muscle growth command center, binding to specific DNA elements in the muscle gene promoter. Each factor plays a unique role in the grand scheme of muscle repair, regeneration, and growth.

In the world of muscle hypertrophy, satellite cells are the backstage crew making sure the show goes on.

So, the next time you hit the gym and feel the burn, know that your satellite cells are gearing up to turn that burn into muscle growth. It’s a cellular symphony, and satellite cells are playing a crucial part in the muscle-building melody.

👉 Discover More: A Guide to the Good Life Summary (3 Top Lessons)


➤ Myogenic Pathways

Embarking on a journey into the cellular orchestra of muscle hypertrophy, let’s delve into the myogenic pathways that orchestrate the intricate dance of molecular signals.

Understanding these pathways is crucial for deciphering how mechano-stimulation translates into the sculpting of robust muscle tissue. Here’s an overview of the key myogenic pathways:

Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway

At the heart of skeletal muscle growth, the Akt/mTOR pathway stands as a master regulator. Although the precise molecular choreography is still being unveiled, Akt takes center stage as a pivotal nodal point.

It serves as both an executor of anabolic signals and a formidable inhibitor of catabolic cues. When Akt takes the stage, it signals mTOR, initiating a cascade of events that culminate in hypertrophic bliss for muscle tissue.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway

MAPK, a master conductor of gene expression, redox status, and metabolism, is a linchpin in the myogenic symphony. In the realm of exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy, MAPK links cellular stress to adaptive responses in myocytes, orchestrating growth and differentiation.

Within the MAPK ensemble, three modules—extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)—play distinct roles.

Notably, JNK, with its sensitivity to mechanical tension and eccentric exercise, takes the spotlight, rapidly influencing mRNA of transcription factors that steer cell proliferation and DNA repair.

Calcium-Dependent Pathways

In the calcium-dependent realm, Calcineurin (Cn) emerges as a critical conductor in the symphony of muscle hypertrophy. As a Ca2+-regulated phosphatase, Cn takes center stage downstream in the Ca2+ signaling cascade.

Its influence extends to key hypertrophic effectors such as myocyte enhancing factor 2, GATA transcription factors, and nuclear factor of activated T cells.

Cn-dependent signaling, a pivotal player in hypertrophy across fiber types, underscores its importance, with inhibition disrupting muscle growth even in the face of muscular overload.

In conclusion, these myogenic pathways intricately weave the narrative of muscle hypertrophy. The Akt/mTOR pathway conducts the overarching theme of growth regulation, while the MAPK pathway orchestrates the intricate dance of gene expression.

Calcium-dependent pathways, with Calcineurin as a leading maestro, harmonize the hypertrophic symphony. As we unravel the complexities of these pathways, we gain insight into the molecular concert that shapes the robust, adaptive response of muscles to exercise-induced stimuli.

Stay tuned for more discoveries as the molecular symphony of muscle hypertrophy continues to unfold.

👉 Discover More: Saving for a Baby (Money Tips for New Parents)


Hormones and Cytokines

In the pursuit of understanding muscle hypertrophy, it’s crucial to unravel the intricate role that hormones and cytokines play in regulating anabolic processes.

These molecular signals serve as upstream regulators, influencing protein metabolism and fostering muscle growth. Let’s explore the complex interplay of these biological factors.

Anabolic Hormones and Cytokines

  • Elevated concentrations of anabolic hormones increase the likelihood of receptor interactions, facilitating protein metabolism and subsequent muscle growth.
  • Various hormones and cytokines, including Hepato growth factor, Interleukin-5 (IL-5), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibroblast growth factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor, contribute to anabolism and satellite cell processes.

Insulin

  • Insulin, though suppressed during exercise, possesses anabolic properties, particularly in attenuating proteolysis and inducing mitosis and differentiation of satellite cells.
  • The concept of “sarcoplasmic hypertrophy” suggests that insulin may contribute to greater muscle bulk without proportional strength gains.

Exercise-Induced Hormonal Alterations

  • Various types of exercise cause acute and, in some cases, chronic hormonal alterations that play a role in mediating hypertrophic signaling systems.
  • Three extensively studied hormones in this context are insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), testosterone, and growth hormone (GH).

Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF-1)

  • IGF-1 is considered a crucial mammalian anabolic hormone, responding favorably to mechanical loading.
  • Mechano growth factor (MGF), a splice variant of IGF-1, is activated by mechanical signals and plays a role in initiating muscle hypertrophy.
  • IGF-1 induces hypertrophy by increasing protein synthesis, activating satellite cells, and enhancing fusion of satellite cells with muscle fibers.

Testosterone

  • Testosterone, a cholesterol-derived hormone, has significant anabolic effects on muscle tissue.
  • It promotes anabolism by increasing protein synthesis, inhibiting protein breakdown, and stimulating the release of other anabolic hormones like GH.
  • Testosterone also contributes to satellite cell replication and activation, increasing the number of myogenically committed satellite cells.

Growth Hormone (GH)

  • GH acts as a repartitioning agent, stimulating fat metabolism and amino acid incorporation into proteins, including muscle.
  • GH release is pulsatile, with exercise inducing spikes in its levels, particularly associated with type I and type II muscle fiber hypertrophy.
  • GH is implicated in the regulation of locally expressed IGF-1 and may enhance the interaction with muscle cell receptors.

Debates and Future Research

  • Despite extensive studies, there are debates about the significant hypertrophic effects of GH on muscle tissue.
  • Some studies administering GH as part of resistance training protocols have shown conflicting results, emphasizing the need for further research to clarify its role in muscular development.
Related:  Cut Volume + Increase Intensity = Grow Muscles (Mike Mentzer Style)

In conclusion, the orchestration of hormones and cytokines in the hypertrophic response is a nuanced and intricate process.

While significant strides have been made in understanding the roles of IGF-1, testosterone, and GH, there is still much to uncover. Future research holds the key to unraveling the complexities of these signaling pathways and their impact on optimal muscle growth.

👉 Discover More: The Total Money Makeover Summary (The 7 Baby Steps)


Cell Swelling

Cellular hydration, or cell swelling, emerges as a physiological regulator influencing cell function and stimulating anabolic processes.

The relationship between cell swelling and anabolic drive remains a subject of ongoing exploration. Increased pressure against the cell membrane during hydration may trigger signaling responses, reinforcing cellular ultrastructure.

Hydrated cells activate protein-kinase signaling pathways, possibly mediating autocrine effects of growth factors, and signaling an anabolic response to membrane stretch.

Membrane stretch induced by cell swelling may impact amino acid transport systems through an integrin-associated volume sensor.

The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in modulating amino acid transport during cell swelling emphasizes its importance in these processes.

Resistance exercise alters intra- and extracellular water balance, maximized by glycolysis-dependent exercises.

Fast-twitch fibers, sensitive to osmotic changes, respond to cellular hydration, potentially enhancing the hypertrophic response.

Exercise regimens increasing glycogen storage capacity may also contribute to cell swelling, as glycogen attracts water.


➤ Hypoxia

The Role of Hypoxia in Muscle Hypertrophy

Hypoxia, a condition of reduced oxygen supply, demonstrates contributions to muscle hypertrophy both independently and when combined with exercise.

Studies show that vascular occlusion sessions, inducing hypoxia, attenuate muscular atrophy even without exercise, emphasizing its protective effects.

When combined with low-intensity exercise, hypoxia exhibits additive hypertrophic effects, possibly due to increased lactate accumulation, reduced lactate clearance, and elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and myogenic cytokines.

Potential mechanisms of hypoxic-induced hypertrophy

  • Increased lactate accumulation leading to upregulated protein synthesis.
  • Elevation in anabolic hormones and cytokines, such as GH and IL-6.
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production promoting growth in skeletal muscle.
  • Nitric oxide, an ROS produced during exercise, mediating satellite cell proliferation.
  • Reactive hyperemia after ischemic exercise promoting hypertrophic effects through increased blood flow.

In summary, cellular hydration and hypoxia emerge as multifaceted contributors to muscle hypertrophy.

Cell swelling influences anabolic processes, while hypoxia, whether independently or combined with exercise, triggers various mechanisms that contribute to muscle growth.

Unraveling the complexities of these processes opens avenues for optimizing resistance training regimens and understanding the nuanced interplay of factors influencing muscle hypertrophy.


➤ Main Factors of Hypertrophy

1️⃣ Mechanical Tension

Mechanical tension, arising from force generation and stretch, stands as a cornerstone for muscle growth. The interplay of these stimuli yields an additive effect, influencing muscle mass positively.

The initiation of translation, particularly controlled by the protein synthetic rate, is pivotal in this process. Resistance training-induced tension disturbs skeletal muscle integrity, triggering molecular responses through growth factors, cytokines, and stretch-activated channels.

The AKT/mTOR pathway likely plays a regulatory role, yet the intricacies of these processes await further elucidation. Eccentric contractions, enhancing hypertrophic response through passive tension, exhibit fiber-type specificity, favoring fast-twitch fibers.

While mechanical tension alone can induce hypertrophy, it’s not the sole contributor. Some high-tension resistance training predominantly induces neural adaptations without commensurate hypertrophy.

2️⃣ Muscle Damage

Exercise-induced muscle damage, occurring at various levels, is theorized to prompt a hypertrophic response. This damage, ranging from localized tissue disruption to sarcolemma tears, triggers responses akin to acute inflammatory reactions.

Neutrophils migrate to microtrauma sites, and released agents attract macrophages and lymphocytes.

Growth factors released in this process regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, crucial for muscle growth. Nerves impinging on damaged fibers may further stimulate satellite cell activity, contributing to hypertrophy.

3️⃣ Metabolic Stress

Exercise-induced metabolic stress, resulting from anaerobic glycolysis during ATP production, adds another dimension to hypertrophy initiation. Metabolites like lactate, hydrogen ions, inorganic phosphate, and creatine accumulate, heightening the hypertrophic effect.

This stress, especially prominent in bodybuilder training regimes, influences hormonal milieu, cell swelling, free-radical production, and growth-oriented transcription factors.

Muscle ischemia, coupled with glycolytic training, augments metabolic stress and contributes to the adaptive hypertrophic response.

In conclusion, the triumvirate of mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress orchestrates the initiation of exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

Unraveling their intricate interplay opens avenues for refining training strategies and comprehending the nuanced mechanisms guiding the growth of skeletal muscle.

👉 Discover More: An Open Letter to My Future Son & Daughter: Step 1


➤ Training Variables

1️⃣ Intensity

Intensity, expressed as a percentage of your one-repetition maximum (1RM), plays a pivotal role in muscle hypertrophy. Low repetition ranges (1-5) focus on force generation, while moderate (6-12) and high (15+) repetitions tap into anaerobic glycolysis, leading to metabolic stress.

The prevailing belief leans towards the 6-12 rep range for optimal hypertrophic response. This zone maximizes metabolic stress, triggering an acute hormonal surge, particularly of testosterone and growth hormone.

2️⃣ Volume

Exercise volume, the product of repetitions, sets, and load, is a critical determinant of hypertrophic gains. Higher-volume, multi-set protocols prove superior in promoting muscle hypertrophy compared to single-set routines.

The hypertrophic superiority of higher-volume workloads is linked to increased metabolic stress and anabolic hormonal responses.

Progressive volume increase over a periodized cycle, culminating in a brief period of overreaching, may enhance the supercompensation effect, optimizing protein accretion.

3️⃣ Exercise Selection

Variation in exercise parameters, such as angle and position, can activate different muscle compartments. Adopting a multiplanar, multiangled approach ensures uniform growth and stimulates all fibers within a muscle.

Both multijoint and single-joint exercises have their place. Multijoint movements recruit more muscle mass, creating a larger hormonal response. However, single-joint exercises allow for a targeted focus on specific muscles, improving symmetry and addressing imbalances.

4️⃣ Rest Interval

Rest intervals between sets impact hypertrophy. Short intervals (30s or less) heighten metabolic stress but impair strength recovery. Long intervals (3 minutes or more) maximize mechanical tension but compromise metabolic stress.

Moderate intervals (60-90s) strike a balance, enhancing both metabolic stress and strength recovery. This compromise supports an optimal anabolic environment and metabolic buildup, vital for hypertrophic gains.

5️⃣ Muscular Failure

Training to muscular failure, the point where muscles can’t produce necessary force, is debated yet believed crucial for hypertrophy.

It activates more motor units and enhances metabolic stress, contributing to anabolic processes. However, it should be used judiciously to avoid overtraining and burnout.

Related:  The Muscle and Strength Pyramid (Training Summary)

6️⃣ Repetition Speed

Repetition speed influences hypertrophy, with evidence suggesting faster concentric speeds benefit growth. Eccentric contractions, especially at faster speeds, induce greater tension and muscle damage, enhancing the hypertrophic response.

Eccentric exercise, while associated with more muscle damage, can be particularly effective in stimulating type II fibers.

In conclusion, the nuanced interplay of training variables shapes the landscape of muscle hypertrophy.

Tailoring your approach, considering factors like intensity, volume, exercise selection, rest intervals, muscular failure, and repetition speed, ensures a holistic strategy for maximal growth.

This journey requires both adaptation and variation, with the wisdom to balance pushing limits with avoiding pitfalls like overtraining.

As you embark on this quest for muscle hypertrophy, remember: the art lies in the precision of your training variables, and the science in their thoughtful orchestration.


Real World Applications

Based on current research findings, let’s distill the key practical applications for maximizing muscle hypertrophy. Here’s a blueprint to guide your hypertrophy-oriented training program:

Repetition Range

Aim for a sweet spot of 6-12 reps per set. This range optimizes metabolic stress and hormonal responses, crucial for hypertrophic gains.

Rest Intervals

Keep your rest intervals in the range of 60-90 seconds between sets. This balance ensures metabolic stress while allowing adequate recovery for maintaining strength across sets.

Exercise Variation

Diversify your exercise selection to stimulate all muscle fibers. Adopt a multiplanar, multiangled approach to ensure comprehensive activation of various muscle compartments.

This not only promotes uniform growth but also addresses potential muscle imbalances.

Split Training Routine

Incorporate a split training routine. This approach involves targeting specific muscle groups on different days, allowing for increased focus and recovery.

Multiple sets within this context enhance the overall anabolic environment, a key factor for hypertrophic gains.

Muscular Failure

Include sets that push muscles to concentric failure. This can be done strategically, perhaps alternating microcycles of sets to failure with those not performed to failure.

This approach minimizes the risk of overtraining while still capitalizing on the benefits of training to failure.

Repetition Speed (Tempo)

For concentric repetitions, aim for fast to moderate speeds (1-3 seconds). This not only enhances the recruitment of high-threshold motor units but also contributes to metabolic stress.

Eccentric repetitions, on the other hand, benefit from slightly slower speeds (2-4 seconds). This controlled approach optimizes muscle tension under load, a critical factor for eccentric-induced hypertrophy.

Periodization

Implement periodization in your training. Periodize your hypertrophy phase, culminating in a brief period of higher-volume overreaching.

This phase should be followed by a taper, allowing for optimal supercompensation of muscle tissue.

👉 Discover More: Should You Save or Invest? (Teach Your Kids the Difference)


➤ Final Thoughts

In summary, your hypertrophy program should be a well-calibrated orchestration of repetition ranges, rest intervals, exercise variations, split routines, strategic use of muscular failure, and thoughtful repetition speeds.

Periodize your training to ensure sustained progress and avoid pitfalls.

As you embark on this journey, remember that the synergy of these practical applications is the key to unlocking your body’s hypertrophic potential.

References
  1. Abernethy, PJ, Jürimäe, J, Logan, PA, Taylor, AW, and Thayer, RE. Acute and chronic response of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise. Sports Med 17: 22-38, 1994.
  2. Ahtiainen, JP, Pakarinen, A, Alen, M, Kraemer, WJ, and Häkkinen, K. Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 89: 555-563, 2003.
  3. Alén, M, Pakarinen, A, Häkkinen, K, and Komi, PV. Responses of serum androgenic-anabolic and catabolic hormones to prolonged strength training. Int J Sport Med 9: 229-233, 1988.
  4. Allen, DG, Whitehead, NP, and Yeung, EW. Mechanisms of stretch-induced muscle damage in normal and dystrophic muscle: Role of ionic changes. J Physiol 567: 723-735, 2005.
  5. Anderson, KG and Behm, DG. Maintenance of EMG activity and loss of force output with instability. J Strength Cond Res 18: 637-640, 2004.
  6. Anderson, KG and Behm, DG. Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements. Can J Appl Physiol 30: 33-45, 2005.
  7. Antonio, J. Nonuniform response of skeletal muscle to heavy resistance training: can bodybuilders induce regional muscle hypertrophy? J Strength Cond Res 14: 102-113, 2000.
  8. Antonio, J and Gonyea WJ. Role of muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia in intermittently stretched avian muscle. J Appl Physiol 4: 1893-1898, 1993.
  9. Aronson, D, Boppart, MD, Dufresne, SD, Fielding, RA, and Goodyear, LJ. Exercise stimulates c-Jun NH2 kinase activity and c-Jun transcriptional activity in human skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 251: 106-110, 1998.
  10. Aronson, D, Dufresne, SD, and Goodyear, LJ. Contractile activity stimulates the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway in rat skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem 272: 25636-25640, 1997.
  11. Baar, K and Esser, KA. Phosphorylation of p70. S6k correlates with increased skeletal muscle mass following resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 276: C120-C127, 1999.
  12. Ballor, DL, Becque, MD, and Katch, VL. Metabolic responses during hydraulic resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 19: 363-367, 1987.
  13. Bamman, MM, Shipp, JR, Jiang, J, Gower, BA, Hunter, GR, Goodman, A, McLafferty, CL Jr, Urban, RJ. Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E383-E390, 2001.
  14. Barnett, C, Kippers, V, and Turner, P. Effects of variations of the bench press exercise on the EMG activity of five shoulder muscles. J Strength Cond Res 9: 222-227, 1995.
  15. Barton-Davis, ER, Shoturma, DI, and Sweeney, HL. Contribution of satellite cells to IGF-I induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scan 167: 301-305, 1999.
  16. Bickel, CS, Slade, J, Mahoney, E, Haddad, F, Dudley, GA, and Adams, GR. Time course of molecular responses of human skeletal muscle to acute bouts of resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 98: 482-488, 2005.
  17. Bloomer, RJ and Ives, JC. Varying neural and hypertrophic influences in a strength program. Strength Cond J 22: 30, 2000.
  18. Bodine, SC, Stitt, TN, Gonzalez, M, Kline, WO, Stover, GL, Bauerlein, R, Zlotchenko, E, Scrimgeour, A, Lawrence, JC, Glass, DJ, and Yancopoulos, GD. Akt/mTOR pathway is a crucial regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and can prevent muscle atrophy in vivo. Nat Cell Biol 3: 1014-1019, 2001.
  19. Brahm, H, Pehl-Aulin, K, Saltin, B, and Ljunghall, S. Net fluxes over working thigh of hormones, growth factors and biomarkers of bone metabolism during short lasting dynamic exercise. Calc Tiss Int 60: 175-180, 1997.
  20. Bricout, VA, Germain, PS, Serrurier, BD, and Guezennec, CY. Changes in testosterone muscle receptors: Effects of an androgen treatment on physically trained rats. Cell Mol Biol 40: 291-294, 1994.

⬇️ More from thoughts.money ⬇️

🔥 Daily Inspiration 🔥

〝Strong people are harder to kill than weak people, and more useful in general.〞

― Mark Rippetoe
Pavlos Written by:

Hey — It’s Pavlos. Just another human sharing my thoughts on all things money. Nothing more, nothing less.